One thing I’ve harped on a lot in regards to selecting vegetable varieties for the short season zone (zones 3-4) is to select varieties that mature in no longer than about 68 days. While this is generally true, it is not always the case. Some short season varieties I’ve selected that were supposed to mature in 55-60 days, did so, but just didn’t produce much (for instance, King of the North pepper, a variety that sure sounds like a good deal for this zone, but hasn’t done well in this climate). I’ve subsequently discovered “New Ace,” sweet pepper that is a much more prolific producer of petite green peppers.
On the other hand I’ve planted a few varieties of veggies that I didn’t expect to mature in our region because they were over 70 days to maturity, like Canesi squash from Johnny’s Selected Seed and by golly, it did great.
So it depends on the particular variety as well. There are some definite traits in different plants, besides days to maturity, that will contribute to the success or failure of a crop. With that said, here are a few tried and tested in the north varieties I’ve grown for years now: Celebrity tomato, from various companies,; Jasper tomato, from Johnny’s Selected seeds and others; Danali cauliflower, from Johnny’s Selected Seeds, and Early Xtra Early Yellow and Northern Xtra Sweet Yellow sweet corn from Jungs.